The 4 Types of Projects in Project Management

project types

Project management can be a complicated world! Workfront wants to make you and your team as effective as possible and feels like Martin Webster’s post about unique types of projects could be helpful. Your projects may vary based on the nature of the project, the sponsor, deadlines, etc. We hope Martin’s insights help you discover an idea or option you hadn’t previously considered.

Occasionally, Workfront will discover an article or an author that aligns with our internal mission of making work more effective and enjoyable. We’re thrilled to have Martin Webster as a guest blogger on Talking Work and hope you find his content as beneficial as we do.

Learning to trust your instincts is an important leadership skill. Use this wisely and it will give you a head start when you write a project plan. When embarking on a new change project, project managers and project sponsors often get a gut feeling about how things will proceed.

Let me ask you this: What mental impression are you left with when appointed project manager? A feeling of confusion or bewilderment? Confidence? A sense of purpose? Excitement?

Understanding how you feel about a project will assist you in identifying the type of project you are running and how best to deal with its challenges.

You can take our quiz, "What Type Of Manager Are You?" to get an idea of your leadership style.

What’s more, it will help you to choose the right leadership style for your change project.

Here’s why…

Four Types of Projects

Eddie Obeng, a British educator, author, and motivational speaker, reckons there are four types of projects. I’d agree with him.

In All Change! The Project Leader’s Secret Handbook, Obeng also describes how our feelings about a change project help us to identify with the idea behind the project.

A person who is going nowhere can be sure of reaching his destination.

For example, if you are unsure of what is to be done and unsure of how to go about doing it, you are likely to feel as if you are caught in the fog.

Your gut feeling may be one of fear, loss, confusion, or uncertainty.

Obeng describes four types of projects:

  1. Walking in the fog
  2. Making a movie
  3. Going on a quest
  4. Painting by numbers

Understanding the four types of projects can help you to predict problems and put measures in place to avoid them. And the leadership styles needed to deliver organisational change are closely related to each type of project.

1. Walking in the Fog

If you don’t know what you want or how to achieve it you are likely to have a "walking in the fog" type of project.

Typically, the organisation is attempting to do something different. Something that hasn’t been attempted before. These types of projects are started because of a change in circumstances.

For instance, introducing a new business strategy in response to political, legislative, or socio-economic organisational change. As such, this type of change project calls for certain leadership styles: tight control, strong communication, and innovation and creativity.

These projects require teamwork and a desire to work and learn together.

Walking in the fog projects should proceed cautiously. If not, you risk delivering nothing of benefit to the organisation.

2. Making a Movie

If you know how but not what you need to do you, have a "making a movie" type of project.

In this situation, your stakeholders are very certain about how the project should proceed but not what needs to be done.

Your organisation has built up significant expertise and capability in the area the project will tackle and has many people committed to the methods needed to deliver the change.

During the early stages of this type of project you need to focus your attention on solving the whatwriting a business case―not the how.

That is, mobilise problem solvers from within your organisation or use external sources to develop and generate ideas. Once you have your script, the movie will make itself.

"Vision is the art of seeing things invisible." – Jonathan Swift

Making a movie type of project evokes positive emotions and a sense of purpose and openness.

3. Going On a Quest

In contrast, the "going on a quest" type of project is where you and most of your stakeholders are very sure of what should be done. However, you are unsure how you will achieve it.

Long-range purposes keep you from being frustrated by short-term failures.

If you are involved in this type of project you will no doubt feel challenged, excited, or single-minded. Projects involving information technology tend to fall into this category and are often criticised for cost overruns, being late, or not delivering the expected benefits.

Consequently, your leadership style needs to balance strict control of time and cost with the freedom to innovate and solve problems.

Above all you need a team of self-motivated people―“knights”―who work tirelessly to seek out and then deliver the solution.

4. Painting By Numbers

The "painting by numbers" type of project is where you always want to be by the time you start investing lots of time and money in the change project.

You and most of your stakeholders are sure of what to do and how it is to be done. These change projects tend to have clear goals plus a clearly defined set of activities needed to complete the project.

"A rock pile ceases to be a rock pile the moment a single man contemplates it, bearing within him the image of a cathedral." – Antoine de Saint-Exupéry

What’s more, this type of project is characterised by the organisation’s project management maturity; written methods, procedures, and systems describing what and how things are done are evident.

By the time you start a painting by numbers project you will feel confident. You will probably want to demonstrate your competence by delivering the project early or under budget.

If you reach this stage of your project and your gut feeling tells you something different, take note. You really don’t want to commit serious resources to it until you are very clear about the what and how.


On a final note, recognise that the level of risk varies depending on the types of projects you embark on. It should be your objective to manage project risk as the change project proceeds.

Also, projects can change from quest, movie, or fog to painting by numbers as they progress through the project lifecycle.

Use your head to interpret how well things are doing and adapt your leadership styles to best suit the type of project you’re leading.

Martin Webster

This post is by Martin Webster at Martin Webster is an engineer, IT professional, introvert, occasional artist, people leader, and geek. is dedicated to helping leaders learn the skills of leading, share their own experiences, and promote leadership development.

This article is by Martin Webster from