A3 problem solving — what it is, benefits, and more

Woman learns about A3 problem solving on her computer.

In today’s fast-paced business environment, organizations face complex issues that can tie up teams for extended periods, draining valuable resources and hampering progress. Teams need a simple and efficient way to cut through the confusion, see things clearly, and solve problems fast.

A3 problem solving has become a go-to method for many business teams to distill complex challenges into concise problem statements and develop practical solutions.

In this guide, you’ll learn:

What is A3 problem solving?

A3 problem solving, aptly named after the standard paper size (297 mm x 420 mm or approximately 11”x17”), is a structured technique that condenses the presentation of a problem and its potential solutions onto a single sheet of paper. This concise format serves as a visual tool to foster clear communication and facilitate effective decision-making processes within teams and organizations.

Originally developed by Toyota for lean practitioners in manufacturing, A3 problem solving has since expanded its applicability beyond the manufacturing sector. A3 problem solving emerged as an integral component of the Toyota Production System (TPS) in the 1960s. It played a crucial role in Toyota’s journey toward continuous improvement and fostering a culture of problem solving at all levels of the organization.

Over time, A3 problem solving gained recognition and adoption by various industries by providing versatility across a wide range of complex challenges. Whether it’s addressing process inefficiencies, quality defects, project management issues, customer complaints, or organizational bottlenecks, A3 problem solving promotes a shared understanding of the problem and fosters a sense of ownership and collective responsibility toward finding effective solutions.

The key roles in A3 problem solving include:

A3 problem solving is a structured technique that condenses the presentation of a problem and its potential solutions onto a single sheet of paper.

Benefits of A3 problem solving

A3 problem solving lets organizations and teams tackle complex challenges more effectively and achieve sustainable improvements. By embracing this structured approach, teams can unlock the following advantages:

How to use the A3 problem-solving process in 8 steps

Based on the PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) cycle in Lean methodology, the A3 problem-solving process guides teams through a systematic problem-solving journey. By following these eight steps, you can effectively leverage the power of A3 problem solving:

  1. Identify the problem. A problem is the difference — the gap — between the way your organization should run and the current state of things. Begin by clearly defining the problem or opportunity for improvement. Articulate the problem statement concisely and ensure it aligns with the organization’s goals and objectives. Establish a shared understanding of the problem among team members, emphasizing its significance and impact.
  2. Show the current situation. Present a comprehensive overview of the current situation, including relevant data, facts, and observations. This step involves conducting a thorough analysis of the existing processes, systems, and factors contributing to the problem. Visualize the current state through diagrams, charts, or other visual aids to facilitate a shared understanding of the problem’s context.
  3. Set the goal. Define a clear and measurable goal that represents the desired outcome or solution. The goal should be specific, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART). This step helps focus the team’s efforts and ensures alignment toward a common objective.
  4. Conduct a root-cause analysis. Delve deep into the underlying causes of the problem by conducting a rigorous root-cause analysis. Use various problem-solving techniques such as the 5 Whys, fishbone diagrams, or Pareto analysis to identify the primary factors contributing to the problem. This analysis provides insights into the fundamental issues that need to be addressed for effective problem resolution.
  5. Develop countermeasures. Brainstorm and develop potential countermeasures or solutions to address the identified root causes. Encourage creative thinking and consider different perspectives to generate a range of options. Evaluate each countermeasure based on its feasibility, impact, and alignment with the established goal.
  6. Create an implementation plan. Outline a detailed implementation plan to execute the chosen countermeasures effectively. Specify the actions, responsibilities, timelines, and necessary resources required for successful implementation. Break down the plan into manageable tasks and establish milestones to track progress.
  7. Evaluate and confirm the effect. Implement the countermeasures and closely monitor their effectiveness. Collect data and evaluate the outcomes to determine if the implemented solutions have produced the desired effect. This step involves comparing the current state with the goal set earlier and assessing the extent of improvement achieved.
  8. Update the work standard. Based on the evaluated outcomes, update the standard processes, work instructions, or guidelines to reflect the improved practices. Document the revised standard and communicate it to relevant stakeholders. This step ensures that the knowledge gained from the problem-solving process is institutionalized and integrated into the organization’s continuous improvement efforts.

The A3 report

The A3 report

The A3 report is designed to walk you through the steps of the A3 problem-solving process — all on a single page. When filling it out, include the following sections.

  1. Problem statement
  2. Current situation analysis
  3. Goal statement
  4. Root-cause analysis
  5. Countermeasures
  6. Implementation plan
  7. Evaluation
  8. Follow-up

First, be sure to title your A3 report at the very top of the page and include the date and the name of you and your team.

Start at the top left of the page, state the problem, and then work your way down using the A3 problem-solving process. Devote the left side of the page to the first four steps, which involve thoroughly analyzing the problem. The analysis takes up half the page because this is where you should spend approximately half your time.

Once you’ve worked your way through these first four steps of analyzing the problem, jump back up to the top right of the page and work your way down the right side through the last four steps. Use the right side of the page to work through your solution — your ideas for improvement, your plan of action, and your evaluation and follow-up.

Using the A3 report simplifies the A3 process, ensuring a systematic and focused approach to problem solving without redundancy.

Getting started with A3 problem solving

A3 problem solving breaks complex problems into a simple one-page document, streamlining decision-making processes, fostering teamwork, and driving continuous and sustainable improvements.

When you’re ready to get started with A3 problem solving, check out the A3 report template in this article. Then you can apply the A3 problem-solving methodology to tackle your complex business challenges.

To streamline your problem-solving processes even further, consider using Adobe Workfront. With Workfront, you can optimize and centralize digital projects, like your A3 report, enabling cross-functional teams to connect, collaborate, and execute from anywhere.

To learn more about Workfront, take a product tour or watch an overview video.